Alaric

"Alaric" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Tuesday 26th April 2011

Alaric (modern Romania, 370 - modern Cosenza, Italy, 410 A.D.) king of the Visigoths from 395, who served under the Roman emperor Theodosius I, but later invaded Greece and Italy, sacking Rome in 410, an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire.

A nobleman by birth, Alaric served for a time as commander of Gothic troops in the Roman army, but shortly after the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395, he left the army and was elected king of the Visigoths. Charging that his tribe had not been given subsidies promised by the Romans, Alaric marched westward toward Constantinople until he was diverted by Roman forces. He then moved southward into Greece, where he sacked Piraeus (the port of Athens) and ravaged Corinth, Megara, Argos, and Sparta. The Eastern emperor Flavius Arcadius in 397 appointed Alaric magister militum or dux ("master of the soldiers") in Illyricum.

In 400 Alaric occupied the Po's valley, but he was defeated by the Roman general Flavius Stilicho at Pollentia (modern Pollenza) on April 6, 402, and at Verona in 403, forced to withdraw from the peninsula. In the meantime the emperor's residence moved from Milan to Ravenna. A second invasion also ended in defeat, though Alaric eventually compelled the Senate at Rome to pay a large subsidy to the Visigoths. After Stilicho was murdered in August 408, an antibarbarian party took power in Rome and incited the Roman troops to massacre the wives and children of tribesmen who were serving in the Roman army. These tribal soldiers thereupon defected to Alaric, substantially increasing his military strength.

Although Alaric was eager for peace, the Western emperor Flavius Honorius refused to recognize his requests for land and supplies. The Visigothic laid siege to Rome (408) until the Senate granted him another subsidy and assistance in his negotiations with Honorius. Honorius remained intransigent, however, and in 409 Alaric again surrounded Rome. He lifted his blockade after proclaiming Attalus as Western emperor. Attalus appointed him magister utriusque militiae ("master of both services") but refused to allow him to send an army into Africa. Negotiations with Honorius broke down, and Alaric deposed Attalus in the summer of 410, besieging Rome for the third time. Allies within the capital opened the gates for him on August 24, and for three days his troops occupied the city, untouched by a foreign enemy for nearly 800 years. The emotions about ruined Rome were partly expressed in the "City of God" by St Augustin. From Rome Alaric directed his forces to Messina with the hope to conquer Sicily and Africa. During this march he died unexpectedly, and according to a tradition he was buried in Cosenza.

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