Calabria (Catanzaro) - Southern Regions

"Calabria (Catanzaro) - Southern Regions" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Thursday 28th April 2011

The first name of the region was Brutium as it was occupied by the people named Brutians. Under the Byzantines the region was nominated Calabria. Should also be noticed that this was a birth place of the name Italia given first to the little part of the region.

Area: 15 080 sq.km (5821 sq.miles) (5.0%), population: 2 071 000 inhabitants (3.6%), density of population: 137 inhab./sq.km.

The territory of the region was never a good place for human activity and life: prevalence of the mountain zones; lack of water during the dry seasons and its excessive quantity during the winter months caused by the long period of rains; land poor of mineral resources, reduce of the forests and geological instability.

Nevertheless Calabria was inhabited already in pre-historical period and the first territory arrangement took place with the Greek colonization. Starting from the VIII century b.C. was developed the first infrastructure of inhabited, commercial and agricultural settlements (Sibari, Crotone, Locri on the Ionian coast and Metauro, Medma and Ipponio on the Tyrrhenian coast).

Under the domination of Brutians the region entered the period of decline and abandon continued till the Roman colonization obstructed by the strong popular movement against colonizers. With the presence of Romans the improvements of the territory took place again: opening of the road connecting Naples and Reggio along which were born and developed some settlements among which was Cosenza. But the same Romans made a brought a big harm to the Calabrian territory by reduce of forests for the needs of navy and construction of ships.

During the Middle Ages Calabria got to know the periods of economical development and periods of decline. The Byzantines introduced the culture of mulberry and breeding of the silk-worm. With the rides of Arab pirates the population migrated from the coasts to the inland. The periods of Norman and Swabian in particular domination were the last periods of prosperity before the long decadence continued till the XVIII century when Bourbons tried to bring some improvements in the regional economy and administration. The following interventions were made by Italian state after the WWII, but the results obtained during the past decades are not satisfactory.

 

History

Man and Territory Economy and Resources

Archeology and Art

Origins

The first settlements appeared during the Palaeolithic ages. In
VIII-VI centuries b.C. the region became an important Greek colony (Magna
Grecia). In the V century b.C. the local population of Brutians defeated
the Greeks and assumed the power over the territory.
Foundation of Sibari, Crotone, Locri and Reggio by Greeks.
Numerous signs of the Greek presence.

Roman Epoch
(from the III century b.C.)

Roman colonization.
Construction of the road between Reggio and Napoli, foundation and
development of some settlements (Cosenza).
Big villas in the countryside.

Middle Ages
(V - XV centuries)

Invasions of Goths, Byzantines, Lombards, Saracens. In XI century the
Normans came.
After the first phase of invasions which caused the immigration to the
inland of the region the period of Norman domination brought peace and
prosperity.
Catholic church in Stilo (X century) of Byzantine forms; numerous
Benedictian abbeys and Norman castles.

Renaissance
(XV - XVI centuries)

The Normans are succeeded by the Angevins and the Aragones.
Grave decline of the regional economy: the coast zones are ill with
the malaria and pirate rides; the agriculture doesn't give enough to
ensure the necessary needs of the population.
Aragonian fortifications: le Castella.

Modern Epoch (XVII-XVIII)

Long period of the Spanish domination and the short period of the
Napoleonic invasion.
Some natural calamities: epidemics, earthquakes, floods impoverished
the region to the end.

Napoleon
ordered the division of the large landed estates and their
distribution between the peasants.
.

XIX - XX centuries

Return under the Bourbon domination after the congress in Vienne and
annexation to the Italian state in 1860.
Return to the large landed estate; during the 2nd half of the XX
century some important changes: division of the land again; construction
of some industries, development of some communication ways; creation of
the University.
 

Calabria (Catanzaro) Map:

Calabria (Catanzaro) Map

Position.

The region borders on Basilicata (north), the Tyrrhenian sea (west), the Ionian sea (east and south).

Reggio Calabria

January: 8 C

July: 23.8 C

Climate.

The climate in Calabria is of two types: moderate on the coasts and mountain in the inland and especially in the highest zones where during the winter months the temperature is quite low.

Landscape.

Calabria is a beautiful region occupied mostly by the hills and mountains. The mountains are quite smooth and the maximum altitude is reached by the mountain Pollino (2267m) in the Serra Dolcedorme. The main plain zone is Piana di Sibari created by the floods of the river Crati. The sea coasts of the Tyrrhenian are high and steep, and the Ionian coasts are low and made of send. The main rivers are Crati, Neto and Corace. The natural lakes in Calabria do not exist, but there are three artificial lakes used for production of the hydro energy.

Altitudes:

plain: 8%

hill: 50%

mountain: 42%

Tourism

Total: 4 200 000

Italians: 94%

Foreigners: 6%

Communications.

The number of roads and railways is very little: the reasons are mountain landscape and instability of the soil. The principal communication network is formed of the roads along the coasts reaching Reggio Calabria. The connections with the rest of Italy are supplied by the Highway of the Sun and and railway; and the ferry-boats between Calabria and Sicily. The air traffic goes through the airports in Lamezia Terme and in Reggio Calabria.

Agriculture and breeding.

Agriculture is not developed in Calabria because of the mountain and hill landscape. Non of the agricultural reforms improved considerably this situation. The main products of Calabrian agriculture are wood, oil, orange, citrons, bergamot (cultivated only in this region and used in the industry of perfumes), rosemary and jasmine; sugar beet, tobacco and flowers; little but quality production of wines. The breeding and fishing have no any big importance in the regional economy.

Employment

agriculture: 15%

industry: 18%

tourism,

other: 67%

Hydroenergy

Italy:

44 000 000 kWh

Calabria:

900 000 kWh

Thermoenergy

Italy:

128 000 000 kWh

Calabria:

7 900 000 kWh

Industry.

The industry in Calabria is very poor due to scarce attraction of the capital, outskirts geographical position, lack of well developed communications. Nevertheless there are some productions that function: food, chemical, metal-mechanical and paper.
Among the other important activities should be noticed the tourism developed mostly on the seacoasts and in the zone of Sila. This sector of economy is favoured by the mild climate and natural beauty of the region. But even here the organization and all the touristic infrastructure do not work well.

Population.

For population in Calabria is located mostly in the plain and  on the lower slopes of mountains. The intensive emigration to other regions and countries goes slower in the past two decades. But the birth-rate still is higher than the average Italian one.

Births (per 1000)

Italy: 9.9

Calabria: 12.4

Deaths (per 1000)

Italy: 9.3

Calabria: 7.7

Remnant

Italy: 0.6

Calabria: 4.7

Inhabitants per car

Italy: 2.0

Calabria: 2.3

Expenses for sport/recreation

(liras per inhabitant)

Italy: 48 500

Calabria: 20 000

Life.

Among 20 Italian regions Calabria is the the 20th according to economical conditions and social life. There is no industry and agriculture cannot give more than it gives now. The traditional customs are very strong and the life in general didn't change a lot during the last century.

Provinces and communes.

The territory of the region is divided into three provinces: Catanzaro, Cosenza, Crotone, Reggio di Calabria, and Vibo Valentia with 409 communes.

Monthly income

per inhabitant

881 000 It.Liras

(440 US Dollars)

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