Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Trieste) - Northern Regions

"Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Trieste) - Northern Regions" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Thursday 28th April 2011

The name Friuli-Venezia Giulia has Roman origins. Friuli is deformation of Forum Julii, the Latin name of ancient city of Cividale; Giulia comes from gens Julia to which belonged Julius Caesar. The name Venezia Giulia was born in 1863 to include in one region eastern Friuli or Goriziano, Trieste and Istria.

Its surface is 7 855 sq.km (3030 sq.miles) (1%), population 1 183 000 inhabitants (0,2%), density 151 inhab./sq.km.

Being a region of frontier between central Europe (north) and Slav world (east) Friuli-Venezia Giulia has quite particular history. It was inhabited since 20 000 years ago, in circa 1000 b.C. here went the Illyrian peoples who provided the first works of space organization, founded fortified villages. But only with the Roman colonization the territory was seriously rearranged for needs of human settlements on it. They founded cities (Aquileia), built roads, introduced new plants, divided land into pieces and gave it to local inhabitants to cultivate.

With the decline of Roman empire and barbaric invasions economical and civil development went much slower. The territories were depopulated and people were searching more safe places to live in lagoon islands and other regions.

In XV century were adjoined the other negative factors: raids of Turks and terrible pestilences accompanied by famines.

Only in XVIII appeared the possibility for peaceful life and control of the territory development. This was the time when Charles I Hapsburg established "free ports" in Trieste and Fiume promoted more and more as the exits of Austrian empire to the sea. Thus, as the time was passing by the difference between Friuli and Carnia (which remained agricultural and poor) and Trieste (which became a prosperous central European city with its port and navy) grew more and more.

During last 70 year the situation changed a lot. Trieste lost its importance not being anymore an important port of Hapsburg's empire, while Friuli's plain managed to integrate its traditional agricultural economy with quickly growing industry.

Economical crisis of 70's and 80's reduced the places of work in big industries and gave impulse to little private businesses specialized in commerce and tourism especially in zones of Udine and Trieste.

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History

Man and Territory Economy and Resources

Archeology and Art

Origins

The region is already inhabited in 1000 b.C. by Illyrian-Venetian and Gallic peoples. . Construction of fortified villages.

Roman Epoch
(from II century b.C.)

Romans colonized the territory and founded in 181 b.C. Aquileia (destined to become under Augustus the capital of the 10th Italic region, Venetia et Histria) and Trieste (Tergeste). Between the III and IV centuries Aquileia became one of the most important commercial centers of empire. Great development of agriculture. Numerous building and works of art (Fora of Aquileia, port on the channel Natissa, theatre of Trieste)

Middle Ages
(V - XV centuries)

After invasions of Barbarians (Unns, Goths, Lombards), the Franks conquered the region. The most important cities became those of Cividale, the center of Eastern Marca of Carolings empire, and of Aquileia. Beginning of usage of some modest mineral resources. In XIII commercial traffic via transalpine passageways. Construction of amazing basilica in Aquileia (X century( and Cathedral of San Giusto in Trieste.

Renaissance
(XV - XVI centuries)

Since 1420 Aquileia was a part of Venetian Repubblic. Gorizia and Trieste went under the control of Austria. Building of numerous silk mills in a plain. Venetians founded the city-fortress of Palmanova. A.Palladio built the arches and palaces in Udine.

Modern Ages (XVII=XVIII)

In 1719 Trieste and Fiume were proclaimed the "free ports" by the emperor Charles I Hapsburg. Opening of the road Trieste-Vienna (1719); beginning of the economic growth of Trieste: the low level of taxes permits an active movement of goods and success of the port.
Numerous palaces and noble residences.
G.B.Tiepolo frescoed the palace of Archibishop and the Chapel of Purity in Udine.

XIX - XX centuries

After the 3rd Independence War Friuli was annexed to Italy (1866) wit the capital city of Udine. Only by the end of the WWI Friuli Gorziano and Trieste became a part of Italy. Trieste without the former function as the port of Hapsburg empire lost its traditional prosperity. After the WWII a big part of Trieste's land was taken by Yugoslavia which made the situation even more grave. Since 1964 the region was decreed autonomous with the special status. Industrialization of the region after the WWII. Great harm brought in 1976 on the territory of Friuli by the earthquake, which damaged numerous centers and little industries.  

Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Trieste) Map

Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Trieste) Map

Position.

Friuli-Venezia Giulia borders on Austria (north), Slovenia (east), Veneto (west) and the Adriatic Sea (south). Before the WWII the region was called Venezia Giulia and included quite vast territories divided into five provinces: Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume, Zara.
After the treaty of peace in 1945 big part of these territories was assigned to Jugoslavia and the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia were joined to western part of Friuli to form the new region.
Because of some ethnical problems caused by the fact of co-existence of Italians, Slavs and Germans the region the autonomous regime with the special status.

Climate.

The region has two types of climate: Alpine in Carnia and mild in the plain. The zone of Trieste suffers from violent and freezing north-eastern winds. Precipitation is abundant.

Trieste

January: 3.8 C

July: 23.2 C

Altitudes

plain: 38%

hill: 19%

mountain:43%

Landscape.

The landscape of the region is characterized by mountian zones (depopulated and poor) and plain zones (quite rich and idustrialized). To the north of region are located Alps of Carnia and the western part is occupied by Alps of Giulia; in the center the system of Prealps of Carnia and Giulia; to the south of region is a hill zone covered by vineyards and and fruit-yards. Further to the south is the high plain of the river Tagliamento (dry and not cultivated) and low plain rich of water and fertile. In particular to the south-east are the lagoons of Marano and Grado. The principal rivers are Tagliamento, Isonzo and Timavo.

Communications.

The communication network is based on two main parallel highways crossing the region from the west to the east.

Tourism

Total: 9 600 000

Italians: 60%

Foreigners: 40%

Employment

agriculture: 5%

industry: 35%

tourism, other: 60%

Agriculture and breeding.

Agriculture in Friuli-Venezia Giulia is quite modest and doesn't give big income because of lack of fertile lands and excessive division of the property. The main products here are maize, tabacco and fruit; wine production in the hill zones.
The breeding is important in the mountain zones rich with pasture land. Fishing had lost its value in this region because of the conditions of the Adriatic sea.

Industry.

The most important industries of the region are ship construction, textile and chemical productions concentrated mostly in Trieste, Muggia, Monfalcone and Udine. During past decades industrial activities had grown considerably: little productions in the sectors of metallurgy, mechanics, food, wood and furniture.
The tourism is mostly developed in seaside zones of Lignano and Grado.

Hydroenergy

Italy:

44 000 000 kWh

Friuli-Venezia Giulia:

1 100 000 kWh

Thermoenergy

Italy:

128 000 000 kWh

Friuli-Venezia Giulia:

4 900 000 kWh

Births (per 1000)

Italy: 9.9

Friuli-Venezia Giulia: 7.5

Deaths (per 1000)

Italy: 9.3

Friuli-Venezia Giulia: 12.5

Remnant

Italy: 0.6

Friuli-Venezia Giulia: -5.0

Population.

The population is distributed not equally on the territory of the region: tends to be concentrated in the plain and cost zones, and leaves the mountains of Carnia.
The Friulian language is a neo-Latin or could also be called Celtic-Italian.
Slav national minority speaks Slovenian and live on the valleys of Natisone and Val Resia; while the German minority are settled along the northern frontiers: Tarvisio, Sauris and Timau.
To these groups could be adjoined the other communities belonging to various ethnic and religions: Jewish, Evangelists and Greek-Orthodox all living in Trieste.

Life.

Among all the other northern regions of Italy it is the poorest one, but the gross income per inhabitant is higher than the average Italian one. The positive factors of life in Trieste are: the lowest prices of the goods in comparison with the other northern regions, very well functioning public services; liveliness of civil and cultural climate; tranquil, warm and orderly way of living.
Here the level of illiteracy is one of the lowest in the country, as well as the level of reported crimes; the number of artisan companies and little industrial productions is growing.
People living in Friuli-Venezia Giulia are simple, serious, diligent, preferring to do than to speak, law-abiding and cultured.

Inhabitants per car

Italy: 2.0

Friuli-Venezia Giulia: 1.7

Monthly income

per inhabitant

1 130 000 It.Liras 

(565 US Dollars)

Provinces and communes.

The region is divided in four provinces of which two are Giulian (Trieste and Gorizia) and two are Friulian (Udine and Pordenone) with 219 communes.
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Geography - Map, Altimetrical zones of Region, Mountain, Hill, Plain Land, Islands, Lakes, Rivers, Climate..

Italy is a mountainous country, with the Alps as the northern boundary and the Apennine Mountains forming the backbone of the peninsula, but in between the two