Lazio/ Latium (Rome) - Central Regions

"Lazio/ Latium (Rome) - Central Regions" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Thursday 16th June 2011

Lazio/ Latium (Rome) - Central Regions, Italy

The name Latium comes from the name of ancient people of Latins, ancestors of Romans.
Area: 17 205 sq.km (6640 sq.miles) (5.7%), population 5 241 000 inhabitants (8.8%), density 305 inhab./sq.km.

Lazio (Latin: Latium) is classified as being in the Centre territorial unit of Italy by the European Union, with a code of ITE. The modern descendant, the Italian Regione of Lazio, also called Latium in Latin, and occasionally in modern English, is somewhat larger still, but not as much as double the original Latium.

Lazio/ Latium was the heart of the Roman Empire. It still is very much the province of the perennial city of Rome. It encompasses the provinces of Frosinone, Latina, Rieti, Roma, and Viterbo. Lazio was once home to the Etruscan and Latin peoples which eventually evolved into the Romans. Lazio was part of the Papal States, the territory held by the Vatican until the 1860's. The capital of the Lazio region is Rome which is also the capital of the Italian republic. Rome did not join the united Italy until 1870.

The first human beings occupied the territory of region already in Palaeolithic ages and settled in the hill, plain and river-side zones. In IX century b.C. the Etruscans came and founded the city centers, cultivated lands with the new agricultural plants, etc. The history of the regional center, Rome, influenced all the history of the region itself. With the growth of its power was growing the inhabited area, the new roads (Salaria, Appia, Aurelia, Flaminia, Cassia, Nomentana, Tiburtina-Valeria, Prenestina, Casilina) and aqueducts were built, the agricultural system was improved.

With the collapse of Roman empire and barbaric invasions took place a long social and economical decline.

The Middle Ages in Latium were characterized by feudalism, economy of large landed estate, reclaim of the lands conducted by monk communities.

During the Renaissance Rome was a seat of a splendid pontific court which rearranged the city with the help of the greatest artists of the epoch. The following periods of great transformations were those when Rome became a capital of the united Italy in 1871 and between two world wars in times of B.Mussolini. The past years are characterized the growth of the Rome territory connected with its intensive population; being the center of political, commercial and touristic life Rome and Latium assumed more power and thus economical welfare; the Pontine marshes were dried, reclaimed and transformed in an exceptionally rich agricultural territory; in the provinces of Latina and Frosinone were installed the new industrial productions; a business center Eur and Metro in Rome; one of three electrostations functioning in Italy was constructed in Latina. Nevertheless all these progresses were limited by intervention of the State: Italy spends less for its capital than the other European countries for their capitals.

 

History

Man and Territory Economy and Resources

Archeology and Art

Origins

In IX century Latium was inhabited by various peoples among which were Latins who were civilized living in contact with Etruscans. . Proofs of Etruscan presence on the territory of the region: excavations in Veio, Tarquinia, Vulci.

Roman Epoch
(from VIII century b.C.)

In 754 b.C. the city of Rome was founded and in course of several ages became the center of a huge powerful empire. Population of Rome and reorganization of the territory: roads, bridges, new agricultural plants,   etc. Around the I century b.C. the population of Rome reached the number of 1,360,000 inhabitants. The great urbanistic reorganization in Rome (Foras, basilicas, temples, baths, villas).

Middle Ages
(V - XV centuries)

The fall of western Roman empire in 476. Invasions and sacking of the region by Barbarians and Saracens. Work of monasteries and abbeys (Montecassino, Fossanova, Casamari) over the territory improvement and usage. The great Christian basilicas in Rome: S.Maria in Cosmedin, S.Sabina, S.Costanza, etc. still conserving the elements of original constructions.

Renaissance
(XV - XVI centuries)

Rome is again a splendid capital thanks to the pontific court. Progress in economy: the country-sides are populated and their lands are cultivated again. Construction of roads connecting south and north. Sublime palaces in Rome, amazing villas out of the city. Popes entrusted the work of embellishment to the greatest artists of the epoch (Michelangelo, Bramante, Raphael, Sangallo, etc.).

Modern Epoch (XVII=XVIII)

Till the end of XVIII century the whole of the region belongs to the Church and Latium's history is identified with the history of Rome. Modest development of manufacturing activity in the end of XVIII century. The blooming of civic and religious architecture (Bernini, Borromini).

XIX - XX centuries

In 1809 the pontific state was included in Napoleonic empire. After it was conquered by the new Italian state in 1870 and after it became a capital in 1871, Rome began its rapid expansion. After the WWII inhabited territory of the capital grew in a chaotic way being the place which attracted the population of Latium and other regions. Industrialization of the provinces of Latina and Frosinone after the WWII; opening of the highway of the Sun (Rome-Naples) in 1962, Rome-Civitavecchia and Rome-L'Aquila; construction of the international airport "Leonardo da Vinci" in Rome. New constructions, villas, palaces in Rome, as a capital of Italian state.

Latium (Rome) Map

Latium (Rome) Map

Position.

Latium is located between the Apennines and the Tyrrhenian sea, and is called the "open door" to the south of Italy. Borders on Tuscany, Umbria, Marche (north), Abruzzo and Molise (east), Campania (south).

Climate.

The region has a moderate climate of Mediterranean type; in the mountain zones the climate is characterized by cold winters and abundant precipitation especially in autumn and winter.
Rome

January: 4 C

July: 23 C

Altitudes

plain: 20%

hill: 54%

mountain:26%

Landscape.

The landscapes of Latium are very different one from the other, because it doesn't have any geographic unity. The inland zone includes the part of Apennines and mountains Reatini, Sabini, Simbruini and Ernici. The middle zone  is formed of the other part of Apennines, mountains of Volsini, Cimini, Sabatini all of volcanic origins which craters are occupied by lakes Bolsena, Vico and Bracciano, the hills Albani and mountains Lepini, Ausoni and Aurunci. The seacoast zone is formed of vast plains which are densely populated: Maremma Laziale, Campagna Romana, Agro Pontino, Piana di Fondi and seacoast plain between Gaeta and lower part of Garigliano. The rivers of Latium are not numerous: except Tiber, all the other (Aniene, Salto, Velino, Liri-Garigliano) have no great importance.

Communications.

In Latium cross numerous and important highways and railways among which is the highway of the Sun connecting Milan and Reggio Calabria. The port in Civitavecchia keeps the marine communications with the other ports of Italy; the line Civitavecchia-Olbia and Civitavecchia-Golfo Aranci connects the island of Sardinia with the continent. The air-communications are provided with the international airport in Rome.
Tourism

Total: 31 900 000

Italians: 71%

Foreigners: 29%

Employment

agriculture: 4%

industry: 20%

tourism,

commerce, administration, other: 76%

Agriculture and breeding.

The agriculture in Latium maintained its traditional character. It is more developed in the plain seaside zones thanks to the favourable climate and availability of space. The mountain agriculture is limited by vegetable and fruit production, as well as wine grape cultivation and wine production (especially in the province of Latina). Some importance have also the cultivation of nuts and peach.
The breeding is specialized on sheep; in the lower Latium there is also the breeding of buffalos (from which milk is produced famous cheese "mozzarella" of high quality) and cattle for meat.
Fishing is conducted in Civitavecchia, Anzio, Terracinam Gaeta and Ponza.

Industry.

Till the middle of XX century the industry in Latium was very limited and was presented in Isola del Liri (paper) and Civita Castellana (ceramics). Industrialization touch Latium when other regions decided to invest in Latium's territory attracted by the good geographical position and landscape, near by technical and financial ministries, great markets of highly populated Rome and South of Italy. On the area between Latina and Rome around two towns of Aprilia and Pomezia was formed powerful concentration of medium and big companies.
The sectors of industrial production in the region are the following: electrical energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, food and construction productions; informatics, airspace and telecommunications.
But 75 % of active regional population is occupied in other spheres of activity: administration and research works for industrial companies; public administration (Rome is a concentration of all state burocratic organizations); commerce (huge number of shops of all kinds); tourism and TV production.
Hydroenergy

Italy:

44 000 000 kWh

Latium:

1 400 000 kWh

Thermoenergy

Italy:

128 000 000 kWh

Latium:

15 100 000 kWh

Births (per 1000)

Italy: 9.9

Latium: 9.9

Deaths (per 1000)

Italy: 9.3

Latium: 8.6

Remnant

Italy: 0.6

Latium: 1.3

Population.

Per every 4 inhabitants of Latium, 3 of them live in Rome and its province. This fact of intensive migration in direction of Rome is due to bigger than in other places possibilities to find work and lack of serious politics of decentralization of the functions. After Rome, the second by density of the population is the province of Latina with its industry. And the final aspect that should be notices is the tendency to increase of the population thanks not only to migration but also because of the positive birth rate in comparison with the mortality.

Life.

The life in Latium and in Rome is very different. The increasing material welfare of Romans as a positive side of recent changes has to face the chaos of the city life, degradation of environment, increase of criminality. Nevertheless this city didn't loose its traditions that could be seen in every expression of the life of Romans. The product and consumption per inhabitant are higher than an average Italian rate. The medical assistance is worst than in the northern regions. Rome is the center of political activity in Italy and a center of social life with very well developed system of sport and recreation, cinemas, theatres, restaurants, meeting places and discos.
Inhabitants per car

Italy: 2.0

Latium: 1.7

Monthly income

per inhabitant

1 291 000 It.Liras

 (645 US Dollars)

Provinces and communes.

The region is divided into five provinces: Rome, Frosinone, Latina, Rieti, Viterbo with 377 communes. On the territory of Latium the Vatican City is located, the smallest independent state in the world.
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