List of Great Italian Historical Personalities Started With "C"

"List of Great Italian Historical Personalities Started With "C"" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Tuesday 26th April 2011

List of Great Italian Historical Personalities Started With "C"

Alphabetically Listing "C" - Fact Sheets and Figures on Roman History of Persons

Caesar Gaius Julius. 100-44 b.C., Roman general, statesman, and historian. He formed the first triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus (60), conquered Gaul (58-50), invaded Britain (55-54), mastered Italy (49), and defeated Pompey (46). As dictator of the Roman Empire (49-44) he destroyed the power of the corrupt Roman nobility. He also introduced the Julian calendar and planned further reforms, but fear of his sovereign power led to his assassination (44) by conspirators led by Marcus Brutus and Cassius Longinus.
Caetani, Enrico (Sermoneta 1550-Rome 1599) Italian cardinal since 1585, he was legate in France in 1589 with the goal to elect a new Catholic king after the death of Henry III. Gregory XIV made him the head of the congregation responsible for the affairs with France; and in 1595 was sent to Poland as a legate by Clement VIII.
Caetani, Michelangelo (Rome 1804-1882) duke of Sermoneta, politician and writer, he was a minister of pontifical policy in 1848, and in 1870 presented to king Victor Emmanuel II the results of Roman plebiscite, after which he was elected a deputy.
Cagliostro, count of, Giuseppe Balsamo, named Alessandro (Palermo 1743 - San Leo, Pesaro, 1795) Italian adventurer, entered the monastery of Fatebenefratelli di Caltagirone, but left it quite soon dedicating himself to studies of medicine, hypnotism and al-chemistry.
Cairoli, Benedetto (Pavia 1825-Capodimonte, Naples, 1889) Italian patriot and politician. He was the first son of Carlo and Adelaide Cairoli, volontier in the war of 1848; was forced to emigrate to Piedmont in 1853...
Cairoli, Enrico (Pavia 1840-Rome 1867) he was an Alpian hunter in 1859 and participated in expedition of the 1000 and in the one of Aspromonte, as well as in the 3rd Independence war. He was killed during the attempt of Garibaldi's troop against the pontifical rule in a battle at Villa Glori.
Cairoli, Giovanni (Pavia 1842-1869) he participated in the battle of Villa Glori, about which he wrote a vivid story. He died from the wounds of that event two years later.
Calliope Greek myth. the Muse of epic poetry
Carafa, Carlo (Naples 1517-Rome 1561) he became a cardinal in 1555 and had in his hands the Government of the Pontificial State; participated in diplomatic games where the interest of his family were superior for Carafa than the interests of the pope's state. With the death of Paul IV, who already limited a part of his power, he was imprisoned and judged by the new pope Pius IV.
Carafa, Oliviero (Naples 1430-Rome 1511) arch-bishop of Naples in 1458; became a cardinal in 1467; was sent to the East by Sixtus IV in 1472 with a navy, where he conquered Smirne; he ordered construction of important architectonic works in Rome and in Naples.
Carissimi, Giacomo (Marino, Rome, 1605 - Rome 1674) Italian composer. His father was cooper, and there is no information about his teachers. He begun as a chorister, and later as a organist of the Cathedral in Tivoli. In 1629 he became a maestro of the cappella in the church of St Apollinare at German-Hungarian College in Rome, where remained for all of his life. ...
Caro, Annibale (Civitanova Marche 1507 - Frascati 1566) Italian man of letters. His teacher was a humanist Rodolfo Iracinto and his friend Benedetto Varchi. In 1530 he settled in Rome, serving as a secretary to monsignor Giovanni Gaddi, and later of the Farnese in Frascati...
Casanate, Girolamo (Naples 1620-Rome 1700) Italian scholar and cardinal. He was a governer of Sabina in 1648, of Fabriano in 1652, of Ancona in 1656, inquisitor of Malta in 1658-1663; became a cardinal in 1673. He was a librarian of the Holy Roman Church, so could satisfy his passion of scholar projecting the systematic publication of texts and documents possessed by Vatican and relating to the primitive Church. He also founded a very rich library.
Castellesi, Adriano (Corneto circa1458-1521) Italian cardinal named Adriano da Corneto. After various missions in England and France by commission of Alexander VI, Adriano became a very rich man and in 1503 became a cardinal.
Cattanei or Catanei or
De Cathaneis, Vannozza
(circa 1442 - 1518) Roman noble woman, lover of Rodrigo Borgia, who became pope in 1492 with the name Alexander VI. Her origins are unclear; she was a wife for the 4 times: of Domenico da Rignano, then of Antonio da Brescia, after that of Giorgio della Croce, di Milano, and finally of Carlo Canale, di Mantova. In 1475-1482 she was a lover of cardinal Borgia and had from him at least four children: Cesare, Giovanni, Lucrezia and Goffredo, who were all legitimated by Alexander VI.
Cavour, Camillo Benso, count of (Turin 1810-1861) He was a son of the Turin's police head Michele Cavour and Genevan Adele de Sellon, and was destined for the military carrier, but it was not successful for him because of Camillo's liberal ideas. That is why he left military service and started travelling all over Europe. Starting from 1838 he began to take an active part in public life of Piedmont.
Cecilio Metello, Quinto (...-105 b.C.) named Macedonico. Praetor in 148 b.C; he wanted to repeat the try of Andrisco to conquer Macedonia and two years later combatted Acheians in Scarfea. Consul in 143 he successfully fighted against Celtiberi; supported the agricultural reform of Tiberius Gracch and proposed a low obliging the marriage. Due to him were built a portico and two temples in Rome.
Cenci, Beatrice (Rome 1577-1599) Roman noble woman, daughter of Francesco Cenci; she was obliged by her father to be isolated together with her step-mother Lucrezia Petroni in a solitary rock of Petrella on the borders of Abruzzo. It is not proved and is very unprobable that the father raped Beatrice, as a tradition says.
Cenci, Cristoforo (16th century) he was a rich man, who spread a false news about the ancient origins of his family and of being a relative of Roman Cenci family. He was a grandfather of Beatrice.
Cennini, Cennino (Colle di Val d'Elsa circa 1370- Padova beginning of XV century). Italian art writer and panter.
Charles III (1716-1788) duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1731-1734, king of Naples and Sicily in 1734-1759, king of Spain in 1759-1788, son of the king Philip V Bourbon and Elisabeth Farnese
Charles V (1500-1558) Holy Roman Emperor in 1519-1556, king of Burgundy and the Netherlands in 1506-1555, and king of Spain in 1516-1556: his reign saw the empire threatened by Francis I of France, the Turks and the spread of Protestantism; abdicated.
Charles I of Anjou (1226-Foggia 1285) count of Anjou, of Maine, of Provenza and of Forcalquier (1246-1285), king of Sicily in 1266-1285; king of Jerusalemme in 1278-1285, the 10th son of Louis VIII king of France and of Bianca di Castiglia. ...
Chateaubriand, Vicomte de (Francois Rene) (1768-1848) French writer and statesman: a precursor of the romantic movement in France; his works include Le Genie du Christianisme (1820) and Memoires d'outre-tombe (1849-50).
Chigi, Agostino (Siena 1465-Rome 1520) Siena's banker, he was also named Agostino the Magnificent. He brought a great prestige to the family of Chigi in Rome accumulating a huge capital by means of a Bank founded in Rome in 1502
Christina of Sweden (1626-1689) queen of Sweden in 1632-1654, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, noted particularly for her patronage of literature
Cicero Marcus Tullius. 106-43 b.C., Roman consul, orator, and writer. He foiled Catiline's conspiracy (63) and was killed by Mark Antony's agents after he denounced Antony in the Philippics. His writings are regarded as a model of Latin prose. Formely known in English as Tully.
Cleopatra 69-30 b.C., queen of Egypt (51-30), renowned for her beauty: the mistress of Julius Caesar and later of Mark Antony. She killed herself with an asp to avoid capture by Octavian (Augustus).
Clio Greek myth. the Muse of history
Cola di Rienzo (Rome 1313-1354) the head of Roman people. He was of very modest origins and lived till the age of 20 without education in Anagni, but then he dedicated himself to studied and became a notary.
Colonna, Giovanni (died in 1244) cardinal of th church S.Prassede in Rome from 1212; he was one of the initiators of the wars against the Orsini house.
Colonna, Marcantonio (Civita Lavinia, Rome, 1535-Medinaceli, Vecchia Castiglia, 1584) duke of Paliano, pontifical admiral, capitain of the Holy Roman Church. He was a son of Ascanio and nephew of Fabrizio Colonna. He fighted under the Spanish flag in 1553-54 and against the pope Paul IV, by whom he was excommunicated in 1556 and deprivated of his possessions, re-obtained again with the new pope Pius IV, except Paliano, which was returned to Colonna in 1569 by Pius V together with the title of duke. ...
Colonna, Pietro (...- Avignon 1326) a son of Giovanni Colonna, Roman senator; he was created a cardinal of Sant'Eustachio in 1288 by pope Nicolas IV.
Colonna, Vittoria (Marino, Rome, 1490 - Rome 1547). Italian poetess. In 1509 she married Ferdinando Francesco d'Avalos, marquise of Pescara, in 1525 she remained widow and from that moment became very religious: stayed for a long time in convents and made friendship with Juan de Valdes, Bernardino Ochino and other reformators. She was platonically loved by Michelangelo and Galeazzo di Tarsia. She obtained a great fame thanks to her poems. Her work "Carteggio" is a document representing the relationship of the writer with the society of her epoch.
Columbus, Christopher (1451-1506) (Spanish name: Cristobal Colon, Italian name Cristoforo Colombo) Italian navigator and explorer in the service of Spain, who discovered the New World in 1492.
Condulmer, Francesco (Venice, ... - ..., 1453) nephew of pope Eugenius IV, Italian cardinal and camerlengo; vice-cancellor and legate (1444) of he pontificial army in course of war with Turkey.
Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473-1543) Polish name Mikolai Kopernik, astronomer, whose theory of the solar system was published in 1543.
Corinna (end of the 6th century b.C.) Greek poetess; teacher and rival of Pindarus in the contests of poetry, she sung the leggends and myths of her country. The recent discover of papyri considerably increased a number of her works.
Corsini, Neri Maria (Florence 1685-Rome 1770) cardinal, who conducted politics of the Pontificial State from 1731 until 1740 because his uncle pope Clement XII being very old couldn't govern without help anymore. Neri Maria ordered reconstruction of the Palace Corsini and dedicated himself to increasing of his callection of works of art.
Cromwell, Thomas (1485-1540) Earl of Essex, English statesman. He was secretary to Cardinal Wolsey (1514), after whose fall he became chief adviser to Henry VIII. He drafted most of the Reformation legislation, securing its passage through parliament, the power of which he thereby greatly enhanced. He was executed after losing Henry's favour.
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