Marche (Ancona) - Central Regions

"Marche (Ancona) - Central Regions" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Thursday 28th April 2011

Marche (Ancona) - Central Regions, Italy

The name Marche comes from the term marka which in ancient Germanic language meant "borderline". When this territory became the border of Holy Roman Empire (circa XI century), some of its zones became the feudal lands called Marche (sing. Marca, pl. Marche (it.)): marca of Fermo, marca of Camerino, marca of Ancona. So the whole region took the name meaning the land compound of several "marche".

Area: 9 693 sq.km (3741 sq.miles) (3.2%), population: 1 450 000 inhabitants (1.5%), density of population: 150 inhab./sq.km.

This region was always on the margins of the economical development because of its distant position in relation to the main communication ways between north and south. The territory of the region was occupied already in Neolithic period (6000 years ago), and between III and II millenium b.C. here lived Balcanian and Greek peoples. In III and I centuries b.C. Romans came here interested to control this territory as an access to the Adriatic. So they built two important roads Salaria and Flaminia which would connect Tyrrhenian and Adriatic seas. With the time the port of Ancona became of one the most important seaside trading centers facing the East.

In the Middle Ages was born the actual name of the region, and due to depopulation of the territory some of the urban centers which stood along the main roads disappeared.

Later for a long period of time the coast of the region were threaten by the pirates Saracens which caused migration of the population in the hill and inland zones. In those years the demographic and economic growth were on the zero level.

During the XX century were built the new roads and the touristic industry is developed more and more each year. The transformations in agriculture were slow and not numerous. But such industrial activities as mechanics and especially fishing, when modest fishermen center of San Benedetto del Tronto became a well equipped port working for export of fishing production, bring good profits and supply Marchians with the work.

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History

Man and Territory Economy and Resources

Archeology and Art

Origins

In V century b.C. the region was inhabited by  Picens (in the hills) and by Gauls (on the coasts). . .

Roman Epoch
(from II century b.C.)

Romans conquered the territory and during Imperial epoch it was considered the 5th region of empire. Foundation of the port of Ancona, important trading center with the East. The arch of Augustus in Fano; Roman pools in Fermo.

Middle Ages
(V - XV centuries)

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With the fall of Western Roman Empire the region went under the control of Lombards; the seaside coasts became a part of Eastern Roman Empire. By the end of the 8th century Franks, successors of Lombards, gave the region to the Church and on the frontiers with it were created marquisates of Ancona, Fermo and Camerino. Paper manufactures, cultivation of the new agricultural plants. The art influenced by Byzantine and Lombardian cultures: basilica of S.Ciriaco (Ancona), S.Francesco (Ascoli).

Renaissance
(XV - XVI centuries)

Splendour of the Urbino's court, great center of politics and culture under the rule of Montefeltro. . In Urbino work numerous Tuscanian and Venetian artists and architects, L.Laurana: duke's palace of Montefeltro, basilica in Loreto.

Modern Epoch (XVII-XVIII)

The pontific state affirmed again its power over the region. In the end of XVIII century agreed France to occupy Marche. Some economic progress. In 1782 was founded the paper factory in Fabriano (Pietro Miliani). .

XIX - XX centuries

After the Vienne congress in 1815 Marche returned to pontific state till 1869 when was adjoined to the Italian state. Industrialization: shipyards in Anconaa in 1843; factory of accordions in Castelfidardo in 1863; railway Rimini-Ancona in 18565; development of tourism; highway Bologna-Canosa di Puglia in 1973.  

Marche (Ancona) Map

Marche (Ancona) Map

Position.

Marche stands between the Apennines and the Adreatic and between the rivers of Foglia and Tronto. The region borders on Emilia-Romagna and Republic of San Marino (north), Tuscany and Umbria (west), Latium and Abruzzo (south), the Adreatic (east).

Ancona

January: 3 C

July: 20.7 C

Climate.

The region is dominated by the climates of two types: the northern zone open to the north-eastern wind is more cold and humid; the southern zone has milder and dry climate. And the seaside zone has very mild climate.

Landscape.

The territory of the region consists of mountains and hills, and only little line of a plain part along the sea coast. The rivers go in the parallel direction to the sea: Foglia, Metauro, Cesano, Esino, Potenza, Chienti, Tenna, Tronto.

Altitudes:

plain: 0%

hill: 69%

mountain: 31%

Tourism

Total: 11 600 000

Italians:86%

Foreigners:14%

Communications.

The main railways and highways go along the Adriatic coast, then they cross the Apennines and reach Rome. The maritime traffic is supplied by the port of Ancona, the most important on all of the Italian Adriatic. And there are also numerous fishermen ports (San Benedetto del Tronto, Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, Ancona, Civitanova, Marche).

Agriculture and breeding.

The lack of fertile and appropriate to cultivation zones, plus predomination of little property and scarce mechanization determined very slow development of agriculture in this region. The main productions are: corn, cauliflower, fennel, sugar beet. greater importance has the fishing sector (10% of national fishing product).

Employment

agriculture: 7%

industry: 39%

tourism: 54%

Hydroenergy

Italy:

44 000 000 kWh

Marche:

600 000 kWh

Thermoenergy

Italy:

128 000 000 kWh

Marche:

250 000 kWh

Industry.

Already for many years industry is a growing sector. It is due to improvement of communication ways, help of the banks to little private companies born on the base of artisan traditions. The primary productions are: paper (Fabriano, Pioraco and Tolentino), metalmeccanics, musical instruments, shoes, wines, chemical-pharmaceutical, petrol-chemical, furniture, clothes, tabacco.
The principal touristic places of the region are Pesaro, Fano, Senigallia, Porto Recanati, Civitanova Marche, Porto San Giorgio, San Benedetto del Tronto, Conero; Urbino, Loreto and Recanati.

Population.

The major part of the inhabitants live in the little centers. Ancona the capital of the region and port center has only 1.8 % of the regional population. During the last decade is noted the tendency to move from inland, mountain and hill zones to the seaside parts of the region. The quantity of emigrants is less than of immigrants thanks to recent economic development.

Births (per 1000)

Italy: 9.9

Marche: 8.5

Deaths (per 1000)

Italy: 9.3

Marche: 9.7

Remnant

Italy: 0.6

Marche: -1.2

Inhabitants per car

Italy: 2.0

Marche: 1.8

Life.

During the years after the WWII Marchians have seen the improvement of their life, now they are richer, can permit them to spend more than an average Italian citizen and didn't suffer a lot from inflation: Ancona is one of the Italian cities where the prices since 1985 didn't increase much till nowdays. The medical assistance is better than an average Italian one. The degradation of the environment in this region is much more little in comparison with the other northern and central regions. The rate of criminality is extremely low. Here the number of marriages celebrated with the religious rite is one of the highest in Italy, and the rate of divorces is low.

Provinces and communes.

The territory of the region is divided into four provinces: Ancona, Ascoli Piceno, Macerata, and Pesaro-Urbino with 246 communes.

Monthly income

per inhabitant

1 303 000 It.Liras 

(651 US Dollars)

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