Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano)

"Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano)" submitted by RomeTour Editorial Team and last updated on Wednesday 29th June 2011

The Roman Forum/ Forum Romanum (Foro Romano) occupies the plain zone between three hills: Palatine, Capitoline and Quirinal. Its birth corresponds to aggregation of the new hills and villages around it, which made necessary creation of the place of commercial, political and cultural exchange. They have chosen this site after it was reclaimed by construction of the Cloaca Massima in the 7th-6th centuries b.C.. The Roman Forum was the centre of the civic and economic life of Rome in the Republican era and kept its prominent role even in the Imperial age.

Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano),Via Dei Fori Imperiali
The center of the Forum was first located in the zone now partly occupied by the church of SS.Luca e Martina, and later moved between two great basilicas Julia and Emilia. This place of popular meetings represented a square with dimensions 120m x 50m. The temples, triumphal arches and public constructions were erected around it. Finally it would be possible to say that Roman Forum was divided into three distinct areas: the Comitium, or political center (west, close to Piazza del Campidoglio); Forum, or commercial center (middle) (pictured below); religious center (east, close to Colosseum).
Roman Forum was divided into three distinct areas: the Comitium, or political center (west, close to Piazza del Campidoglio); Forum, or commercial center (middle)
The area of the Forum gradually lost its character as market place and became a center of civic importance and the scene of public functions and ceremonies. In the 2nd century b.C. a new type of building, the basilica, was introduced. This large covered space was used for judicial hearings and public meetings when these could not be held outside. The first basilica was the Basilica Porcia, built in 185 b.C. and destroyed in 52 b.C. Others were the Basilica Emilia (179 b.C.), and the Basilica Sempronia (170 b.C.), which was later replaced by the Basilica Julia.

The last to be built was the Basilica of Constantine (4th century A.D.). With the centuries the Roman Forum was enriched with the most beautiful and precious examples of art, brought from all over the Empire: Africa, Mediterranean, East, Greece, and Europe.
roman Forum gradually lost its character as market place.
By the time of Julius Caesar the area of the Roman Forum had become inadequate for the growing population and the emperors were obliged to build their own Fora (Forum of Caesar, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Trajan, Forum of Nerva, Forum of Vespasian), all together named Imperial Fora.
Imperial Fora - Forum of Caesar, Forum of Augustus, Forum of Trajan, Forum of Nerva, Forum of Vespasian all together named Imperial Fora.
A fire of the Roman Forum in the 3rd century caused much damage, which was repaired by Diocletian, but the area reflected the general decline of the city. Temples and sanctuaries were neglected under Christian rule and robbed of most of their treasures; the medieval barons used the tallest of the ruined buildings as foundations for their fortress-tower, and a few churches were constructed.
Roman Forum became a cattle-pasture named Campo Vaccino
After damage brought by invasions, earthquakes, fires and time, as well as centuries long sack of marbles and materials by Renaissance architects, the Roman Forum became a cattle-pasture named "Campo Vaccino (Campus Vaccinus)". Some temples were transformed into churches, allowing their preservation in the course of time. During the Renaissance the area of the Forum Romanum was used as a marble and stone quarry.
Roman forum systematic excavations
And only in the beginning of the 19th century the systematic excavations begun. They were directed by Carlo Fea and Antonio Nibby. It made possible to discover the real look of the Forum, cleaned from later constructions. The excavation works were intensified by the Italian State under direction of Pietro Rosa and Giacomo Boni.

The most important monuments in the Roman Forum consists of:

A full view of Roman Forum [Click on the Image for full view] (Photo Credit: Alessandra Assorgi, Email: ales...@hotmail.com )
A full view of Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano).

Address and Useful Info of Roman Forum

Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano)
Via della Salara Vecchia, 5/6 (Via di San Gregorio), L.go Romolo e Remo, 94
Piazza di Santa Maria Nova 53 (off Via dei Fori Imperiali)
Off Via Salaria Vecchia, at Via dei Fori Imperiali (opposite Via Cavour)
00186 , Rome, Lazio, Italy
Zone: Rione Campitelli (Foro Romano- Campidoglio-P.Venezia) (Roma centro)/ Rione Celio (Terme di Caracalla) (Roma centro)
Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano) is Shown By "Map K Zone" As "26"
Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), Rome - Places In Rome Shown By "Map K Zone" - Alphabetical Index of all places In Rome (Roma)

Hours:
Entrance:
How to Get to Roman Forum/ Forum Romanum (Foro Romano) [Public transport]
Roman Forum is located at Via Dei Fori Imperiali (between the Coloseum & Vittorio Emanuele II monument in Piazza Venezia), entrance to Trajan's Market at Via IV Novembre, 94. The Roman Forum is across the road from the Colloseum and is a short walk from the huge white monument which marks the first king of a united Italy (Monumento A Vittorio Emanuele II). This landmark can be seen around most of central Rome.

The main entrance to the Roman Forum is along Via dei Fori Imperiali at the intersection of Via Cavour. The Main entrance to the Roman Forum is located where Via Cavour ends at the Forum entrance. The ancient level of the forum is accessible via a ramp from the Via dei Fori Imperiali and the Via Cavour that passes between the Basilica Aemilia and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. The Via Cavour is the second intersection along the Via dei Fori Imperiali approximately .2 miles (.36 km). At this intersection turn left, southwest, along the Via Cavour. The Via Cavour ends at the main entrance of the Forum and is visible from the road intersection. Public transports are:

  • “B” line: Metro station Colosseo. Bus to Via dei Fori Imperiali or Piazza Venezia.
  • “A” line metro station: Manzoni, then two stops of any tram that goes southwards, in the right direction
  • Bus lines: 60, 75, 85, 87, 95, 175, 271, 571, 175, 186, 810, 850, C3, and the electric minibus 117
  • Tramway lines no: 3.
Contact and Reservation Info of Roman Forum/ Forum Romanum (Foro Romano):

Info and Telephone Booking: +39 06 39967700 (Monday- Friday: 9.00 am - 6.00 pm; Saturday: 9.00 am - 2.00pm)
Groups Booking: +39.06.39967450 Mondays-Fridays 9am-6pm Saturdays 9am-2pm
Schools Booking: +39.06.39967200 Mondays-Fridays 9am-6pm Saturdays 9am-2pm
Buy Ticket Via Telephone: For individuals: 0039 060608 every day from 9:00 to 21:00
Buy Ticket Online: http://www.pierreci.it/ or http://www.ticketclic.it
Roman Forum Website: http://www.pierreci.it/en/museums-and-monuments/foro-romano.aspx
Other Resources:
Forum Romanum by David Camden of Harvard University
Forum Romanum (Foro Romano) at Official Tourist Website For Rome
Digital model of the Roman Forum
Virtual Tour of the Forum Romanum (Foro Romano) with Its History and Monuments

As you visit 'Roman Forum or Forum Romanum (Foro Romano)' you may also like following articles . . .

Basilica Ulpia (Moved from Roman Forum to Forum of Traian)

This was the most important basilica after two ancient ones: Emilia and Giulia. With its construction the political life moved from the Roman Forum to this

Foro di Cesare (Forum of Caesar)

This Foro di Cesare (Forum of Caesar) was the first one of the five Imprial Fora, built in 51-41 b.C. by Julius Caesar after the conquering of Gaul, which

Foro di Nerva or Transient Forum

Emperor Nerva finished construction of this Forum in 96-98 A.D., which was begun by Domitian on the area between Forum of Augustus and Forum of Vespasian. It

Foro di Traiano (Forum of Trajan)

It is the most recent and most grandiose of five Imperial Fora. The big part of it is covered by different modern constructions and streets built over in the

Mercati di Traiano (Trajan's Market) - Imperial Forum Museum (Museo dei Fori Imperiali)

Mercati di Traiano (Trajan's Market) is part of the Forum of Traian was also projected by A.of Damascus, as a complex of nearly 150 individual shops. Here all